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The following list may not be complete:. Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete.
Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0". The First Dynasty ruled from around to BC.
The Second Dynasty ruled from to BC. The kingdom ruled from to BC. The Third Dynasty ruled from to BC. The Fourth Dynasty ruled from to BC.
The Fifth Dynasty ruled from to BC. The Sixth Dynasty ruled from to BC. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history.
The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.
The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs.
After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt.
They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved.
The Ninth Dynasty  ruled from to BC. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.
The successors of Intef the Elder , starting with Mentuhotep I , became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.
The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.
This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.
The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from to BC. The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra is uncertain. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty.
It is best known as when the Hyksos , whose reign comprised the Fifteenth , made their appearance in Egypt. The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty , and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt.
Either at the start of the dynasty, c. Then, some time around BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis , thereby terminating the 13th dynasty.
The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes , only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.
Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty.
This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty. The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris ,  that ruled from either from BC or c.
The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin.
It is here given as per Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.
The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list. The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from to BC.
The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty c.
The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only. Their chronological position is uncertain. The early 17th Dynasty may also have comprised the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre , whose chronological position is uncertain.
It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.
The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from to BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:.
The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from to BC:. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.
The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt.
They ruled from to BC. Though not officially Pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Dynasties , writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.
The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from to c. Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:.
The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta Sais , with only two pharaohs ruling from to BC.
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around to BC. The son and successor of Necho I, Psamtik I , managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.
The Achaemenid Shahanshahs were acknowledged as Pharaohs in this era, forming the 27th Dynasty:. The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from to BC:.
Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho , the Persian rulers from to BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:.
The Argeads ruled from to BC:. The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies , ruled Egypt from BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency.
Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans.
Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh.
It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus , but the historical evidence does not exist.
Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Nectanebo II last native  Cleopatra and Caesarion last actual. Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. First Dynasty of Egypt.
Second Dynasty of Egypt. Old Kingdom of Egypt. Third Dynasty of Egypt. Fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Fifth Dynasty of Egypt.
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Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt. Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. New Kingdom of Egypt.
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Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. Late Period of Ancient Egypt. Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt. Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt.
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Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Bild-Buchstaben und symbolische Zeichen. Renee Friedman and Barbara Adams Hrsg. Strategy, Society and Security. Harrassowitz , p.
The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties. A History of Ancient Egypt. Who was Shepseskara, and when did he reign? Les pyramides des reines Neit et Apouit in French , Cairo: Queen Nitocris of the Sixth Dynasty , in: Provide faculty members and students with access to all of the dictionaries and word lists on PharosOnline.
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The lighthouse was badly damaged in the earthquake of , and then again in and Finally the stubby remnant disappeared in , when the then- Sultan of Egypt , Qaitbay , built a medieval fort on the larger platform of the lighthouse site using some of the fallen stone.
The search was cunningly made in such a manner that the foundations were undermined, and the Pharos collapsed. The agent managed to escape in a ship waiting for him.
In the lighthouse was rediscovered. She confirmed the existence of the ruins representing part of the lighthouse. Due to the lack of specialized archaeologists and the area becoming a military zone, exploration was put on hold.
Some of these remains were brought up and were lying at the harbour on public view at the end of It is possible to go diving and see the ruins.
Legend has it that the people of the island of Pharos were wreckers ; hence, Ptolemy I Soter had the lighthouse built to help guide ships into port at night.
Both in Serbian and Russian, a derived word means " headlight " фар; фара. In it was suggested  that the Pharos was the vertical yardstick used in the first precise measurement of the size of the Earth.
Since a number of proposals have been made to replace the lighthouse with a modern reconstruction. In , the Egyptian government and the Alexandria governorate suggested building a skyscraper on the site of the lighthouse as part of the regeneration of the eastern harbour of Alexandria Port.
The plan was opposed by Alexandria-based sociologist Amro Ali. The lighthouse remains a civic symbol of the city of Alexandria and of the Alexandria Governorate with which the city is more or less coterminous.
A stylised representation of the lighthouse appears on the flag and seal of the Governorate and on many public services of the city, including the seal of Alexandria University.
Now because of the narrowness of the strait there can be no access by ship to the harbour without the consent of those who hold the Pharos.
In view of this, Caesar took the precaution of landing his troops while the enemy was preoccupied with fighting, seized the Pharos and posted a garrison there.
The result was that safe access was secured for his corn supplies and reinforcements. He knew, as actually happened, that in a very short time the letters would fall away with the plaster and there would be revealed: History then should be written in that spirit, with truthfulness and an eye to future expectations rather than with adulation and a view to the pleasure of present praise.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pharos disambiguation. The Pharos at Alexandria".
The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Retrieved 5 March Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved March 27,